Our Plea

We need a mask

The babies ask

The little bar soap is almost over

The water in the can is getting lower

Where shall i get the finance

The government is doing much

But the most vulnerable search

Give them a hand

Though we may be many as sand

We will have to survive the pandemic

We all don`t want to be sick

But we really don`t have the means

Let it not be the the disease

Let it not be the hunger

I am a living testimony

I am inspired daily

stay Safe from COVID-19

THE COVID-19 EFFECTS ON HUMANITY. — Health punchline

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus . The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 corona virus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of […]

THE COVID-19 EFFECTS ON HUMANITY. — Health punchline

THE COVID-19 EFFECTS ON HUMANITY.

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus . The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 corona virus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle pain, diarrhea, sore throat, loss of smell, and abdominal pain. This virus that originated from China has spread to all continents and affected over 190 countries in the world according to the World Health Organization data.Europe has been the most hit region in the world followed by the United States of America. In Europe, Italy and Spain are the most hit nations with the highest cases of covid-19. Many deaths has been reported in those countries causing fear and panic among its citizens. Italian`s prime minister was quoted saying , ” We have lost control, we have killed the epidemic physically and mentally. Cant understand what more we can do, all solutions are exhausted on ground. Our only hope remains in the sky, God rescue your people.

Once again humanity has been threatened, human lives are at stake, fear has spread all over the world. People are living in panic, people can no-longer greet others , no giving hugs to the beloved ones, many have become paranoid , humanity has been separated by the pandemic that has affected almost all nations in the world. Humanity has been brought low by a very humble milder covid-19 virus. Many marriages at this time are breaking, family wrangles are increasing because of quarantine. Schools have been closed and children are home. Parents are tired, children running up and down.

The economy has been affected by the deadly virus since many people cannot go to work, industries have closed, people are staying home and keeping distance as advised, income has been lost, high rate of unemployment amongst the people across the world.The virus knows no man , at this point both the rich and the poor are at the same level, the rich have been humbled and they are now at the same level with the poor. Humanity has been shaken, there is nowhere to run to, there is no safe place on the planet.

All we are told is to sanitize, wear masks which many cannot afford, self isolation, keep distance, self quarantine in case you suspect yourself to have the virus. If we follow this guidelines we shall for sure stop the spread of the virus. The virus does not move rather the people moves the virus. Many people from third world countries cannot feed themselves since they live below the poverty line and earning less than a dollar a day. They cannot afford to provide a meal for their families, they cannot afford to buy masks for themselves nor their families, their jobs have been stopped until the crisis is over meaning they should be in quarantine with their families , hunger is killing them, they cannot protect their families from claws of the virus nor hunger. our children, women and the old are dying of hunger they cannot afford a meal for a day. Some governments they cannot afford to provide food to its citizens during this hard times leave alone clean water, electricity, rent- some people have been locked out their homes by the landlords simply because they cannot pay their rent.

The question is – CORONA, why? The depression and trauma that has been caused by this virus in the world today is too much, people are struggling with a lot in their lives, the burdens are too much, there is no one to unburden them of the heavy weights they carry. They are suffering in silence calling unto the heavens for help.

When people in 3rd world nations are wondering about food and shelter,there are some rich people in the world who dont care a lot about money, they don`t need it anymore, its not about money they say but waking up to see another day..This is the time we need to come together in unity to fight this common enemy as a nation, region, continent and a world. Its a collective responsibility to bring our efforts and resources to neutralize this enemy that has seen great economies fall.

The stress, the depression, the trauma, and grief that has been brought by the covid-19 world pandemic is alarming and unspeakable. People have been hurt both physically and mentally. Our humanity has been attacked, science has been left solve all this challenges but there is no break through yet.But through prayers and the tears that people are crying up to almighty God we believe that all this will be behind us soon. All we need is to sanitize our hearts and ask for forgiveness from the almighty above to help us and heal all our wounds and restore our lives once again. He shall take away all our worries, all our depressions and doubts if at all we submit to him and let him take charge.

EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF AFRICAN PEOPLE

Africa for many years has been characterised by many challenges which ranges from illiteracy, diseases, drought and famine, food security and poverty. This challenges in many cases have been attributed to our colonial masters who ruled the African nations several years ago. However this challenges cannot be entirely be attributed to the colonial masters but also our own African leaders who have let us down all through.

Since independence our healthcare systems have nnot been doing so much well, less medical personnel, poor healthcare facilities and unaffordable services. Among all this challenges, mental health has been a forgotten issue in Africa. Mental issues are not always considered as serious issues to be taken care of. For many years mental issues have been always linked to traditions and witchcraft.

Many young people in Africa are faced with many mental issues ranging from depression, stress, PTSD, bipolar and many other mood disorders. All this predicaments youths are facing can be attributed to the high rate of unemployment in many countries. Higher populations are made up of young people ranging from 18-35 years of age.

Having such a dynamic population of young people but with no income or employment is very stressful. Definitions of poverty however varies with social , cultural and political systems. Attempts to understand poverty from a poor mans perspective reveal that poverty is multidimensional social phenomena. From epidemiological aspect, poverty can mean low socio-economic status, low education or unemployment.

Poverty is one of the most significant determinants of health and mental health. The mental health effects of poverty are wide ranging and reach across the lifespan. Poverty in childhood is often associated by lower school achievement, worse cognitive, behavioural and attention related outcomes. Higher rates of delinquency, depressive and anxiety disorders. Poverty in adulthood is linked to depressive disorders , anxiety disorders , psychological distress and suicide.

Poverty affects mental health through an array of social and biological mechanisms acting at multiple levels, including at individual levels, family, local community and even the nation. Statistics shows that Kenya is a depressed nation. This can be attributed to the high levels of poverty and unemployment in the country. Individual level mediators in the relationship between poverty and mental health include, financial distress among the people, chronic and acute stressful life events exposure, toxic exposure and inadequate nutrition among the people. Situations where individuals cannot afford to sustain themselves by getting adequate food, affording healthcare and living a good life.

Poverty consumes so much mental energy that those in poor circumstances have little brain power to concentrate on other areas of life, new research finds. As a result, those with few resources are more likely to make bad decisions that perpetuate their financial woes.

DEPRESSION DISORDERS

Depression is more than feeling sad, low, upset or unmotivated but depression is simply being more than down in the dumps. Depressive disorder is a mood disorder that affects how one feels, thinks, behaves .

signs and symptoms varies from hopelessness and fatigue, to loss of interest in life, physical pain up to suicidal thoughts.

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn’t worth living.

More than just a bout of the blues, depression isn’t a weakness and you can’t simply “snap out” of it. Depression may require long-term treatment. But don’t get discouraged. Most people with depression feel better with medication, psychotherapy or both.

Symptoms

Although depression may occur only once during your life, people typically have multiple episodes. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include:

  • Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness
  • Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports
  • Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
  • Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort
  • Reduced appetite and weight loss or increased cravings for food and weight gain
  • Anxiety, agitation or restlessness
  • Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or self-blame
  • Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
  • Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others. Some people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why.

Depression symptoms in children and teens

Common signs and symptoms of depression in children and teenagers are similar to those of adults, but there can be some differences.

  • In younger children, symptoms of depression may include sadness, irritability, clinginess, worry, aches and pains, refusing to go to school, or being underweight.
  • In teens, symptoms may include sadness, irritability, feeling negative and worthless, anger, poor performance or poor attendance at school, feeling misunderstood and extremely sensitive, using recreational drugs or alcohol, eating or sleeping too much, self-harm, loss of interest in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction.

Depression symptoms in older adults

Depression is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly. Unfortunately, depression often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults, and they may feel reluctant to seek help. Symptoms of depression may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:

  • Memory difficulties or personality changes
  • Physical aches or pain
  • Fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems or loss of interest in sex — not caused by a medical condition or medication
  • Often wanting to stay at home, rather than going out to socialize or doing new things
  • Suicidal thinking or feelings, especially in older men

When to see a doctor

If you feel depressed, make an appointment to see your doctor or mental health professional as soon as you can. If you’re reluctant to seek treatment, talk to a friend or loved one, any health care professional, a faith leader, or someone else you trust.

When to get emergency help

If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.

Also consider these options if you’re having suicidal thoughts:

  • Call your doctor
  • Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
  • Contact a minister, spiritual leader or someone else in your faith community.

If you have a loved one who is in danger of suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. Or, if you think you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room.

Causes

It’s not known exactly what causes depression. As with many mental disorders, a variety of factors may be involved, such as:

  • Biological differences. People with depression appear to have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain, but may eventually help pinpoint causes.
  • Brain chemistry. Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring brain chemicals that likely play a role in depression. Recent research indicates that changes in the function and effect of these neurotransmitters and how they interact with neurocircuits involved in maintaining mood stability may play a significant role in depression and its treatment.
  • Hormones. Changes in the body’s balance of hormones may be involved in causing or triggering depression. Hormone changes can result with pregnancy and during the weeks or months after delivery (postpartum) and from thyroid problems, menopause or a number of other conditions.
  • Inherited traits. Depression is more common in people whose blood relatives also have this condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing depression.

Risk factors

Depression often begins in the teens, 20s or 30s, but it can happen at any age. More women than men are diagnosed with depression, but this may be due in part because women are more likely to seek treatment.

Factors that seem to increase the risk of developing or triggering depression include:

  • Certain personality traits, such as low self-esteem and being too dependent, self-critical or pessimistic
  • Traumatic or stressful events, such as physical or sexual abuse, the death or loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or financial problems
  • Blood relatives with a history of depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism or suicide
  • Being lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender, or having variations in the development of genital organs that aren’t clearly male or female (intersex) in an unsupportive situation
  • History of other mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorder, eating disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder
  • Abuse of alcohol or recreational drugs
  • Serious or chronic illness, including cancer, stroke, chronic pain or heart disease
  • Certain medications, such as some high blood pressure medications or sleeping pills (talk to your doctor before stopping any medication)

Complications

Depression is a serious disorder that can take a terrible toll on you and your family. Depression often gets worse if it isn’t treated, resulting in emotional, behavioral and health problems that affect every area of your life.

Examples of complications associated with depression include:

  • Excess weight or obesity, which can lead to heart disease and diabetes
  • Pain or physical illness
  • Alcohol or drug misuse
  • Anxiety, panic disorder or social phobia
  • Family conflicts, relationship difficulties, and work or school problems
  • Social isolation
  • Suicidal feelings, suicide attempts or suicide
  • Self-mutilation, such as cutting
  • Premature death from medical conditions

Depression can cause more harm to an individual than good. Its always good to keep our mental health at the fore-front all the times, as it ranges from children to adults.

Always have someone to speak to avoid mental retardation.

COMPARE PERSPECTIVES ON HEALTH IN ANCIENT TIMES TO THE BIOMEDICAL AND BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL APPROACH TO Health

Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioural process in health, illness and healthcare.
It is concerned with understanding how psychological, behavioural and cultural factors contribute to physical health and illness. Psychological factors can affect health directly as well as behavioural factors which also affects a person’s health.
Health psychologists understand health to be the product not only of biological processes for example tumor and virus but also psychological processes like thoughts and beliefs as well as the behavioural processes like habbits and social processes.
Health in ancient times can be compared to biomedical and biopsychosocial approaches respectively. Human medical model has constantly evolved over time.
From a philosophical sense, human is born of spiritualism medical model which emerged in the primitive society about 10000years ago. In ancient times, due to the limited levels of understanding and of productivity development human life phenomenon, disease outcome, life and death and other issues appeared very mysterious as they were unable to be answered and early medicine was also hence covered with a layer of mystery veil.
With the improvement of human capacity for understanding natural world, the development of productivity and the accumulation of pharmaceutical experience, people found out that some diseases were not mysterious and unpredictable but rather had rules and hence began to doubt about the concept of health and diseases under spiritualism.
In natural philosophy, medical model abandoned those ridiculous contents such as ghosts, separating medicine from witchcraft, hence ending the early in discrimination. During this era, humans transisted gradually from the original living state of coexistance with nature, relying solely on psychical power which was similar to animals to a living state using technology.
In this process, humans have accumulated experience in treatment of diseases through observation, thinking and practises, alleviating pain and saving lives using these accumulated experiences when the same disease occurred again.
Inner Canon of yellow Emperor, is said to mark the transition between spiritualism medical model and the natural philosophy medical model in China. He formed a complete set of theoretical system, the holistic medical view which took the correspondence between human and universe and the theory of Yin-yang and “five elements”as reasoning tools and the organ as well as the meridian theory. It believed that diseases were caused by imbalance of Yin and Yangand the deficiency excess of Vital qi and pathogen factors.
Hippocrates on the other hand abandoned all kinds of theological thoughts,he believed that the body is composed of four elements (air,earth,water and fire) which combined to form a body. He explained that medicine was the conquer over natural forces rather than the surrender to natural forces.
On the other hand, Biomedical model,there were many discoveries that were made. Biomedical model made people believe that biological factors caused diseases and the treatment should be medical. Each disease had it’s own specific biological or physiochemical factors which could bring chemical changes to human body cells,tissues or organs.
It was believed that health was a dynamic balance between host(body),environment and pathogens and the diseases would occur if such balance was disturbed. Biomedical model enabled medicine to enter the era of development,stimulated research enthusiasm of physicians,allowed more specific understanding development, diagnosis and treatment of diseases .Diagnosis and treatment of diseases became more accurate,convenient and effective.
Many biological mechanism inducing human diseases were found,thus enabling targeted prevention and treatment.
Difficulties in surgery such as pain, infection and blood loss were overcome and operative mortality was greatly reduced. This model largely depended on science,technology and ignoring people’s feelings,both mental and physical.hence giving rise to bad situation.
In this model diagnosis and treatment process was carried out around itself. The doctor -patient relationship became increasingly distantive .In this model also doctors became over-reliant on image data and various reports who only considered whether various physiological parameters of patients were normal during the treatment process, while ignoring the emotional,social,environmental and other factors. Hence doctors were separated by icy medical instruments and science became increasingly departed from humanities.
Where as bio,psychosocial medical approach was proposed in 1977 by Engel,a professor. Under the influence of bio-psycho-social medical model, humanistic spirit and medical practice go hand in hand. However, from the perspective of labor division, medical humanistic spirit and medical scientific spirit are independent of one another. Darwin’s definition of science is as follows: science is to organize facts, found laws therefrom, and make conclusions. Medical scientific spirit is the objective facts respecting, rigorous, truth-seeking and pragmatic spirit in the medical practice process, and the innovative spirit based on the inheritance and practice. Medical scientific spirit emphasizes the objective facts, and ignores the interference of subjective factors. As the noble spirit of human civilization, what scientific spirit expresses is the courage to uphold scientific thought and the continuously truths seeking mind, where correct understanding of the movement of objective world is required. Therefore, objective reality and pursuit of truth are the primary requirements of scientific spirit; medical science is the application and manifestation of scientific spirit in medical and health practice, which is the spirit of dedication to biomedical research.
Medical humanistic spirit, on the other hand, is concerned about the psychological state of patients, emphasizes patients’ true feelings in medical practice, pursues humane medical practice, and values emotional guidance. Medical science should only study and treat patients as an organism, but should also return to the social attributes of humans, and treat them as a social people. Development of medicine should always emphasize the penetration of medical humanistic spirit; medical humanistic spirit pays close attention to the people’s quality of life and meaning of existence, making them realize medical values around the humanistic values.
As the guiding ideology of medical development, medical humanistic spirit indicates the humanistic course for the development of medical science. The core of medical research is humans, and the core of humanistic spirit is peoples orientation. Peoples orientation is the fundamental principle for development and progress of human society, which decides the leading and guiding role of medical humanistic spirit to medical science. Medical science can only get rid of the utilitarian temptation under the guidance of medical humanities, shouldering the great mission of better survival and development for humans, and returning the humanistic attributes of medicine.
During medical practice, medical humanistic spirit and medical scientific spirit should be integrated, complementary and mutually reinforcing. Medical science alleviates and heals patients’ diseases, while medical humanistic spirit provides psychological support to patients. Medical science can only deal with physical suffering of patients through advanced technological means, while medical humanistic spirit can appease patients’ psychological trauma. Humans are composed of mind and body; in order to fully and completely resolve the suffering of patients, the two must supplement and complement each other. Sometimes, doctors’ a few warm apt words can exert an effect which cannot be achieved by therapy, and win the deep trust of patients and their active cooperation during the treatment process. A good doctor should be the one possessing both medical humanistic and scientific spirits. Every step of the development of modern medicine is permeated with spiritual elements: knowledge learning, accumulation of experience, emotional care, strong will and so on. Throughout the history of medicine development, the development level of medical humanities has all along been deciding the development of medical science. Only by constantly injecting the medical humanistic ideology into medical science, can the medical science exert its positive effects to the greatest extent. Neither medical scientific spirit nor medical humanistic spirit can independently complete this great mission, or independently constitute modern medicine.